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Myeloma Screen

Serum Free Light Chains

February 15th, 2021


Antibodies are secreted by plasma cells, and are made up of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains. There are two types of light chain - κ (Kappa) and λ (Lambda).
Serum free light chains is a measure of the light chains (Bence-Jones protein) not bound to antibody.
Elevated serum free light chains alone have little significance, and may be related to polyclonal antibody production or renal impairment.

Abnormal Kappa/Lambda Ratio

    • Normal Range

    • 0.31 - 1.56
An elevated or reduced kappa / lambda ratio suggests clonal expansion of one light chain type.
  • Causes of Abnormal Kappa / Lambda Ratio

  • Multiple myeloma
  • Smouldering myeloma
  • Monoclonal gammopathy of unclear significance (MGUS)
  • Solitary plasmacytoma
  • AL amyloidosis
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