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Serum Free Light Chains

 
 
 
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Overview

Antibodies are secreted by plasma cells, and are made up of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains. There are two types of light chain - κ (Kappa) and λ (Lambda).
Serum free light chains is a measure of the light chains (Bence-Jones protein) not bound to antibody.
Elevated serum free light chains alone have little significance, and may be related to polyclonal antibody production or renal impairment.

Abnormal Kappa/Lambda Ratio

    • Normal Range

    • 0.31 - 1.56
An elevated or reduced kappa / lambda ratio suggests clonal expansion of one light chain type.
  • Causes of Abnormal Kappa / Lambda Ratio

  • Multiple myeloma
  • Smouldering myeloma
  • Monoclonal gammopathy of unclear significance (MGUS)
  • Solitary plasmacytoma
  • AL amyloidosis
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