MedSchool: Ace Your OSCEsThe Medical Company
GET - On the App Store
Myeloma Screen

Serum Free Light Chains



  • Antibodies are secreted by plasma cells, and are made up of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains. There are two types of light chain - κ (Kappa) and λ (Lambda).
  • Serum free light chains is a measure of the light chains (Bence-Jones protein) not bound to antibody.
  • Elevated serum free light chains alone have little significance, and may be related to polyclonal antibody production or renal impairment.

Abnormal Kappa/Lambda Ratio

      • Normal Range

      • 0.31 - 1.56
  • An elevated or reduced kappa / lambda ratio suggests clonal expansion of one light chain type.
    • Causes of Abnormal Kappa / Lambda Ratio

    • Multiple myeloma
    • Smouldering myeloma
    • Monoclonal gammopathy of unclear significance (MGUS)
    • Solitary plasmacytoma
    • AL amyloidosis
Want more info like this?
  • Your electronic clinical medicine handbook
  • Guides to help pass your exams
  • Tools every medical student needs
  • Quick diagrams to have the answers, fast
  • Quizzes to test your knowledge
Sign Up Now