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Myeloma Screen

Manifestations of Myeloma

February 15th, 2021


MGUS and smouldering myeloma by definition do not manifest clinically. Multiple myeloma presents classically with hypercalcaemia, renal dysfunction, anaemia and lytic bony lesions (denoted by the acronym CRAB); myeloma should be suspected in patients with any of these manifestations without any other clear cause.
  • Manifestations of Multiple Myeloma

  • Classical (CRAB)

  • Calcium - hypercalcaemia
  • Renal failure (multifactorial) - due to cast nephropathy, glomerular light chain deposition, hypercalcaemia, amyloidosis
  • Anaemia - normocytic, normochromic
  • Bone lesions - lytic lesions, due to osteoclastic change
  • Other

  • Hyperviscosity syndrome - due to hypergammaglobulinaemia
  • Amyloidosis - GI, cardiac, hepatic, renal, muscular or nerve infiltration
  • Recurrent infections - due to relative hypogammaglobulinaemia
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