Serum Free Light Chains | Myeloma Screen - MedSchool
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Myeloma Screen

Serum Free Light Chains



  • Antibodies are secreted by plasma cells, and are made up of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains. There are two types of light chain - κ (Kappa) and λ (Lambda).
  • Serum free light chains is a measure of the light chains (Bence-Jones protein) not bound to antibody.
  • Elevated serum free light chains alone have little significance, and may be related to polyclonal antibody production or renal impairment.

Abnormal Kappa/Lambda Ratio

      • Normal Range

      • 0.31 - 1.56
  • An elevated or reduced kappa / lambda ratio suggests clonal expansion of one light chain type.
    • Causes of Abnormal Kappa / Lambda Ratio

    • Multiple myeloma
    • Smouldering myeloma
    • Monoclonal gammopathy of unclear significance (MGUS)
    • Solitary plasmacytoma
    • AL amyloidosis
Last updated on August 12th, 2018