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Renal Exam
 
 

Leg Colour

 
 
 
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Lower Limb Erythema

  • Look For

  • Redness - unilateral, bilateral, localised or diffuse.
  • Causes of Lower Limb Erythema

  • CellulitisTender, red, swollen, warm calf ± site of injury
  • Skin conditionsMacules, papules, patches or plaques - localised / diffuse
  • Lipodermatosclerosis (fibrosis of subcutaneous fat)Inverted bowling pin appearance with erythema / induration
  • LymphoedemaNon-pitting oedema, usually bilateral
  • Deep venous thrombosisRed, swollen, tender calf
  • Superficial ThrombophlebitisTender area with erythema tracking along the course of a superficial vein
  • Venous insufficiencyHyperpigmentation that may be associated with varicose veins or oedema.
  • Dependent rubor(peripheral arterial disease)Dusky-red discolouration when the leg is elevated above the heart

Pallor of the Lower Limb

  • Look For

  • Loss of colour in one or both lower limbs.
  • Causes of Lower Limb Pallor

  • Anaemia
  • Peripheral arterial disease
  • Compartment syndrome
  • Low cardiac output, due to cardiac disease
  • Peripheral shutdown, due to increased sympathetic activity
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