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Renal Exam


November 28th, 2019


Also known as foetor ex ore, oral malodour and 'bad breath'.
  • Smell For

  • An offensive odour that may resemble rotten eggs / meat / fish or faeces.
  • Significance

  • Suggestive of bacterial colonisation in the mouth, pharynx, respiratory or gastrointestinal tracts.
  • Causes of Halitosis

  • Oropharyngeal

  • Xerostomia (dry mouth)
  • Poor oral hygiene
  • Mouth ulcer
  • Dental caries
  • Gingivitis
  • Tongue colonisation
  • Tonsilitis
  • Sinusitis
  • Gastrointestinal

  • Reflux
  • H pylori infection
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Respiratory

  • Bronchiectasis
  • Bronchial tumour
  • Systemic

  • Cirrhosis
  • Ketosis
  • Alcohol
  • Uraemia

Uraemic Foetor

  • Smell For

  • Ammonia, or a urine-like odour.
  • Significance

  • Occurs in patients with end-stage renal failure.

Foetor Hepaticus

  • Smell For

  • A musty smell, sometimes described as a mix between rotten eggs and garlic.
  • Significance

  • Associated with severe liver cirrhosis, likely due to sulphur compounds such as methyl mercaptan and dimethylsulphide.
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