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Knee Exam
 
 
Knee Exam
Examination of the knees is performed to identify and localise pathology affecting the bones, joints or soft tissues associated with the knee.
 

Knee Deformities

 
 

Genu Varum (Bow Leg)

    • Look For

    • Outward bowing of the legs. May be associated with a waddling gait or in-toeing. Look for deformities of the foot.
    • Causes of Genu Varum (Bow Leg)

    • Normal from birth to 2 years of age
    • Physiological bow-legging
    • Rickets - vitamin D deficiency
    • Achondroplasia
    • Blount’s disease (tibia vara)
    • Growth arrest - due to infection, fracture or tumour of the growth plate

Genu Valgum (Knock-Knee)

    • Look For

    • Inward angulation of the legs, with the knees rubbing together.
    • Causes of Genu Valgum (Knock-Knee)

    • Normal from 2-5 years of age
    • Physiologic knock-knee
    • Growth arrest - due to infection, fracture or tumour of the growth plate
    • Rheumatoid arthritis
    • Bony dysplasia
    • Osteogenesis imperfecta
    • Ligamentous pathology - collateral / cruciate ligament laxity, iliotibial band contracture

Genu Recurvatum (Back-Knee)

    • Look For

    • Backwards angulation (hyperextension) of the knee joint greater than 5 degrees.
    • Significance

    • An indicator of ligamentous laxity, either due to trauma or a hypermobility syndrome (e.g. Marfans).
Last updated on January 1st, 2017
 
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Associated Diseases
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Read More...

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