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Knee Exam
 
 

Knee Deformities

 
 
 
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Genu Varum (Bow Leg)

  • Look For

  • Outward bowing of the legs. May be associated with a waddling gait or in-toeing. Look for deformities of the foot.
  • Causes of Genu Varum (Bow Leg)

  • Normal from birth to 2 years of age
  • Physiological bow-legging
  • Rickets - vitamin D deficiency
  • Achondroplasia
  • Blount’s disease (tibia vara)
  • Growth arrest - due to infection, fracture or tumour of the growth plate

Genu Valgum (Knock-Knee)

  • Look For

  • Inward angulation of the legs, with the knees rubbing together.
  • Causes of Genu Valgum (Knock-Knee)

  • Normal from 2-5 years of age
  • Physiologic knock-knee
  • Growth arrest - due to infection, fracture or tumour of the growth plate
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Bony dysplasia
  • Osteogenesis imperfecta
  • Ligamentous pathology - collateral / cruciate ligament laxity, iliotibial band contracture

Genu Recurvatum (Back-Knee)

  • Look For

  • Backwards angulation (hyperextension) of the knee joint greater than 5 degrees.
  • Significance

  • An indicator of ligamentous laxity, either due to trauma or a hypermobility syndrome (e.g. Marfans).
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