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Cranial Nerves


February 15th, 2021


  • Look For

  • Twisting of the head and neck toward a shortened sternocleidomastoid, with rotation of the chin in the opposite direction. Determine whether this occurs in episodes or is present all of the time.
  • Causes of Torticollis

  • Episodic (Paroxysmal)

  • Benign
  • Spasm
  • Increased ICP
  • GORD - Sandifer syndrome
  • Medications - antipsychotics
  • Psychiatric - conversion disorder
  • Static (Nonparoxysmal)

  • Neurological - brainstem lesion, cerebellar lesion, basal ganglia lesion, spinal cord lesion
  • Bony - congenital, trauma, inflammatory
  • Soft tissue - infectious
  • At birth - breech presentation, birth trauma
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