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Cranial Nerves
 
 

Overview

  • Roles

  • Special sensory (taste) - posterior ⅓ of tongue
  • Visceral sensory - carotid sinus baroreceptors, carotid body chemoreceptors
  • Somatic sensory - external ear, internal tympanic membrane, upper pharynx, posterior ⅓ of tongue
  • Somatic motor - stylopharyngeus
  • Visceral motor (parasympathetic) - parotid gland

Glossopharyngeal Nerve Palsy

  • Abnormalities

  • Loss of pharyngeal sensation / gag reflex
  • Loss of taste of posterior ⅓ of tongue
  • Xerostomia (dry mouth)
  • Causes fo Glossopharyngeal Nerve Palsy

  • Tumour
  • Infarction
  • Base of skull fractureInvolving the jugular foramen
  • Diptheria

Motor Pathway

Cortical Centre
Primary motor cortex (precentral gyrus)
 
 
Nucleus Ambiguus
Medulla
 
Foramen
Jugular foramen
 
Ganglia
Superior (jugular) and
inferior (petrous) ganglia
 
Division
Stylopharyngeal branch
 
 
Muscles
Stylopharyngeus

Parasympathetic Pathway

Hypothalamus
 
 
Inferior Salivatory Nucleus
Medulla
 
Foramen
Jugular foramen
 
Superior (jugular) and
inferior (petrous) ganglia
 
Tympanic Nerve
 
Tympanic Plexus
 
Lesser petrosal nerve
 
Otic ganglion
 
 
Parotid Gland

Visceral Sensory Pathway

Cardiovascular & Respiratory Centres
Reticular formation and hypothalamus
 
 
Solitary Nucleus
Medulla
 
 
Foramen
Jugular foramen
 
Ganglia
Superior (jugular) and
inferior (petrous) ganglia
 
Nerve to sinus
 
 
Receptors
Carotid sinus baroreceptors, carotid body chemoreceptors

General Sensory Pathway

Cortical Centre
Primary sensory cortex (postcentral gyrus)
 
 
Sensory Nucleus
Medulla
 
 
Foramen
Jugular foramen
 
Ganglia
Superior (jugular) and
inferior (petrous) ganglia
 
Pharyngeal branch
 
 
Receptors
External ear, internal tympanic membrane, upper pharynx, posterior ⅓ of tongue

Special Sensory Pathway

Gustatory Cortex
Insula
 
 
Thalamus
 
 
Sensory Nucleus
Medulla
 
 
Foramen
Jugular foramen
 
Ganglia
Superior (jugular) and
inferior (petrous) ganglia
 
Lingual branch
 
 
Taste Receptors
Posterior ⅓ of tongue
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