Ankle Exam
 

Bony Landmarks

 
 
Bookmark

Bony Landmarks of the Ankle

  • Medial malleolus - of the distal tibia.
  • Lateral malleolus - of the distal fibula.
  • Talus - a tarsal bone that articulates directly with the medial and lateral malleoli.
  • Navicular - a tarsal bone of the medial foot, distal to the talus.
  • Cuneiforms  - three tarsal bones of the medial foot, distal to the navicular bone.
  • Calcaneus - a posterior tarsal bone that constitutes the heel.
  • Cuboid - a tarsal bone of the lateral foot, distal to the calcaneus.
  • Metatarsal bones - palpate the heads, shafts and bases of the five metatarsal bones. Squeeze across the metatarsal heads.
  • Phalanges - proximal, intermediate (2-5), and distal.
 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Want more info like this?
  • Your electronic clinical medicine handbook
  • Guides to help pass your exams
  • Tools every medical student needs
  • Quick diagrams to have the answers, fast
  • Quizzes to test your knowledge
Explore
   
 
 

Read More...

 Allen RH, Gross MT. Toe Flexors Strength and Passive Extension Range of Motion of the First Metatarsophalangeal Joint in Individuals with Plantar Fasciitis. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 2003; 33: 468-478. Davis H, Blundell C. Clinical examination of the foot and ankle. Orthopaedics and Trauma. 2011; 25(4): 287-292.
Dix-Peek SI. An approach to the assessment of cavus deformity. SA Orthopaedic Journal. 2008 Sep;7(3):54-8.
 Douglas J, Kelly M, Blachut P. Clarification of the Simmonds-Thompson Test for Rupture of the Achilles Tendon. Canadian Journal of Surgery. 2009 Jun; 52(3): 40-41. Douglas J, Kelly M, Blachut P. Clarification of the Simmonds-Thompson test for rupture of the achilles tendon. J Can Chir. 2009; 52(2): E40-E41. Hecht PJ. Hallux Valgus. The Medical Clinics of North America. 2014 Mar; 98(2): 227-232. Heron JR. Neurological Syndromes Associated with Pes Cavus. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine. 1969 Mar; 62: 270-271. Jacobs B. Toe walking, flat feet and bow legs, in-toeing and out-toeing. Paediatrics and Child Health. 2010 May; 20(5): 221-224. Jhadav V, Mahajan P, Mhaske C. Nail Pitting and Onycholysis. Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology. 2009; 75(6): 631-633. Piazza S, Ricci G, Ienco EC, Carlesi C, Volpi L, Siciliano G, Mancuso M. Pes cavus and hereditary neuropathies: when a relationship should be suspected. Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. 2010 Dec 1;11(4):195-201. Redmond AC, Crosbiec J, Ouvrier RA. Development and eValidation of a Novel Rating system for Scoring Standing Foot Posutre: the Foot Posture Index. Clinical Biomechanics. 21(1): 89-98. Roche A, Hunter L, Pocock N, Brown D. Physical examination of the foot and ankle by orthopaedic and accident and emergency clinicians. Injury, Int. J. Care Injured. 2009; 40: 136–138. Scher RK. Toenail Disorders. Clinics in Dermatology. 1983; 1(1): 114-124. Schwieterman B, Haas D, Columber K, Kunpp D, Cook C. Diagnostic accuracy of physical examination tests of the ankle / foot complex: a systematic review. Int J Sports Phys Ther. Aug 2013; 8(4): 416–426. Scott BW, Al Chalabi A. How the Simmonds-Thompson Test Works. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1992 Mar; 74B(2): 314-315. Shirzad K. Lesser Toes Deformities. Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. 2011 Aug; 19(8): 505-514. Singh D, Bentley G, Trevino SG. Callosities, Corns and Calluses. British Medical Journal. 1996 Jun; 312(7043): 1403. Solis G, Hennessy MS, Saxby TS. Pes Cavus: a Review. Foot and Ankle Surgery. 2000; 6: 145-153. Talusan PG, Milewski MD, Reach JS. Fifth Toe Deformities: Overlapping and Underlapping Toe. Foot Ankle Spec. 2013 Apr; 6(2): 145-149. Torpy J, Burke A. Thrombophlebitis. JAMA. 2011 Apr; 305(13): 1372. Yeagerman SE, Cross MB, Positano R, Doyle S. Evaluation and Treatment of Symptomatic Pes Planus. Current Opinion in Paediatrics. 2011 Feb; 23(1): 60-67.
Feedback