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Ankle Exam

Assessing the Foot Arch

June 22nd, 2019
On this page:Pes CavusPes Planus


  • Look For

  • The height of the foot arch - high, normal or flattened.

Pes Cavus

High-arched foot.
  • Significance

  • Pes cavus is strongly associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, though may also occur in several other conditions.
  • Causes of Pes Cavus

  • Congenital

  • Charcot-Marie-Tooth
  • Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies
  • Freidrich's ataxia
  • Cerebral palsy
  • Spina bifida
  • Acquired

  • Upper motor neuron lesion - stroke, tumour, trauma
  • Lower motor neuron lesion - common peroneal nerve palsy
  • Malunion of fracture
  • Contracture

Pes Planus

Flat foot.
  • Causes of Pes Planus

  • Physiologic - limb rotation, obesity
  • Hypotonia
  • Trauma - peroneal nerve damage
  • Bony fusion - talocalcaneal, talonavicular, calcaneonavicular
  • Ligamentous laxity - Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan syndrome
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