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Structural Heart Disease
Structural Heart Disease

Mitral Stenosis



  • Causes of Mitral Stenosis

  • Rheumatic heart disease
  • Congenital mitral stenosis
  • Mitral annular calcification


Mitral stenosis manifests as a low-pitched, mid-diastolic murmur best heard in the apex in the left lateral position.
  • Signs of Mitral Stenosis

  • Peripheral Signs

  • Narrow pulse pressure
  • Central Signs

  • Apical diastolic thrill
  • Early opening snap - high frequency sound after S2 in early diastole, heard best between the apex and left sternal edge
  • Loud first heart sound (S1)
  • Low-pitched, mid-diastolic murmur loudest in the apex in the left lateral position
  • Signs of Complications

  • Evidence of pulmonary hypertension - elevated JVP, parasternal heave, loud / palpable P2
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