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Structural Heart Disease
Structural Heart Disease

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

On this page:Diagnosis


Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a disorder that  causes left ventricular hypertrophy (particularly of the interventricular septum), which may be obstructive or non-obstructive.


  • Signs of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

  • Peripheral Signs

  • Double carotid impulse
  • Prominent a waves within the jugular venous pulsation
  • Central Signs

  • Double apical impulse
  • Paradoxical splitting of the second heart sound (S2): single S2 during inspiration and split S2 during expiration
  • Presence of a fourth heart sound (S4)
  • Late systolic murmur (LV outflow tract obstruction) that increases with valsalva manoeuvre and decreases with squatting
  • Pansystolic murmur loudest at the apex (mitral regurgitation)
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