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Structural Heart Disease
Structural Heart Disease

Aortic Regurgitation



  • Causes of Aortic Regurgitation

  • Acute

  • Infective endocarditis
  • Dissecting aneurysm
  • Hypertension
  • Trauma
  • Chronic

  • Rheumatic heart disease
  • Congenital bicuspid aortic valve
  • Ankylosing spondylitis
  • Marfan syndrome / Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
  • Aortitis


Aortic regurgitation manifests as a descrescendo diastolic murmur, heard loudest on sitting forward on expiration.
  • Signs of Aortic Regurgitation

  • Peripheral Signs

  • Collapsing Pulse
  • Widened Pulse Pressure
  • Central Signs

  • Soft A2 - loss of normal splitting of S2 on inspiration
  • Volume-loaded apex beat - displaced apex with forceful, non-sustained impulses
  • Decrescendo diastolic murmur loudest on sitting forward, in expiration
  • Signs of Complications

  • Evidence of left ventricular failure - pulsus alternans, pulmonary crepitations
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