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Haemolytic Screen
Haemolytic Screen




  • Bilirubin is a breakdown product of haem that is conjugated in hepatocytes with glucuronic acid and then excreted in bile.
      • Normal Range

      • Total bilirubin - <1 mg/dL or <20 μmol/L
      • Direct (conjugated) bilirubin - <0.3 mg/dL or <7 μmol/L
    • Significance

    • Haemolysis results in unconjugated (indirect) hyperbilirubinaemia, as free haemoglobin is metabolised to haem and then bilirubin.
    • Causes of Elevated Bilirubin

    • Unconjugated (Indirect)

    • Haemolysis - immune, thrombotic microangiopathy, mechanical, inherited, infection, hypersplenism, drugs
    • Haematoma resorption
    • Drugs - choramphenicol, probenecid, irinotecan
    • Neonatal - neonatal jaundice, jaundice of prematurity
    • Inherited conjugation disorders - Gilbert syndrome, Crigler-Najar syndrome
    • Unconjugated /Conjugated

    • Acute hepatitis - viral hepatitis, HSV, EBV, CMV, VZV, alcoholic hepatitis, drug-induced hepatitis, ischaemic hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, Wilson’s disease
    • Cirrhosis - chronic hepatitis B or C, alcoholic liver disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, chronic bile duct obstruction, primary sclerosing cholangitis, haemochromatosis, Wilson’s disease, alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, hepatocellular carcinoma, sarcoidosis, glycogen storage disease type IV, methotrexate, methyldopa, amiodarone, Budd-Chiari syndrome, right heart failure
    • Conjugated (Direct)

    • Intrahepatic cholestasis - primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, sepsis, HCC, liver metastases, cystic liver disease, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, cystic fibrosis, total parenteral nutrition, viral / alcoholic hepatitis, amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, augmentin, isoniazid, rifampicin, chlorpromazine
    • Extrahepatic cholestasis - choledocholithiasis, bile duct stenosis, bile duct strictures, primary sclerosing cholangitis, bile duct / ampullary / pancreatic malignancy
    • Inherited secretion disorders - Dubin-Johnson syndrome, Rotor’s syndrome
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