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Full Blood Count

White Cell Count

February 15th, 2021


Leukocytes represent a variety of cells derived from myeloid and lymphoid lineages that perform a variety of immune functions.
    • Normal Range

    • Males: 3.7 - 9.5 x 10⁹/L
    • Female: 3.9 - 11.1 x 10⁹/L


Leukocytosis refers to an increase in circulating white blood cells. This may be due to infection, inflammation, malignancy or certain other conditions.
  • Causes of Leukocytosis

  • Stress leukocytosis - vigorous exercise, emotional stress, seizure
  • Infection - viral, bacterial, fungal, parasitic
  • Inflammation - necrosis, infarction, surgery, burns, autoimmune disease
  • Malignancy - leukaemia, myeloproliferative neoplasms, solid organ malignancies
  • Drugs - corticosteroids, beta agonists
  • Post splenectomy
  • Heavy smoking
  • Thyrotoxicosis
  • Allergy


Leukopaenia refers to a reduction in circulating white blood cells. Leukopaenia is almost always caused by neutropaenia, lymphopaenia, or both.
  • Causes of Leukopaenia

  • Congenital - congenital neutropaenias, primary immunodeficiency disorders
  • Bone marrow pathology -  aplastic anaemia, myelofibrosis, myelodysplasia, acute leukaemia, LGL leukaemia, lymphoma, cancer metastasis
  • Infection - viral, bacterial, rickettsial, fungal, severe sepsis
  • Autoimmune - primary autoimmune neutropaenia, SLE, rheumatoid arthritis (Felty's syndrome)
  • Drugs (dose-related or idiosyncratic) - cytotoxic chemotherapy, NSAIDs, methotrexate, azathioprine, sulfasalazine, clozapine, many others
  • Dietary deficiency - B12, folate, copper, zinc, alcohol abuse, severe malnutrition
  • Chronic idiopathic neutropaenia
  • Hypersplenism
  • Sarcoidosis
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