Neutrophils | Full Blood Count - MedSchool
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Full Blood Count
 
 
Full Blood Count
Neutrophils, also known as polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), are the most prevalent white blood cells in circulation.Morphologically, neutrophils are granulocytes with 3-5 nuclear lobes.
 

Neutrophils

 
 

Overview

  • Neutrophils, also known as polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), are the most prevalent white blood cells in circulation.
  • Morphologically, neutrophils are granulocytes with 3-5 nuclear lobes.
      • Normal Range

      • 2.0 - 8.0 x 10‎⁹/L
      • 40 - 75% of total leukocytes

Neutrophilia

  • Increased circulating neutrophils.
    • Causes of Neutrophilia

    • Pseudoneutrophilia (granulocyte shift) - vigorous exercise, emotional stress, vomiting, seizure, paroxysmal tachycardia
    • Acute infection (particularly pyogenic) - bacterial, viral, fungal, parasitic
    • Inflammation - e.g. surgery, burns, infarction, autoimmune disease
    • Corticosteroids
    • Myeloproliferative neoplasms - CML, polycythaemia, essential thrombocytosis
    • Solid tumours
    • Post splenectomy
    • Heavy smoking

Neutropaenia

  • Reduced circulating neutrophils.
    • Classification

    • Mild: 1.0 - 1.5 x 10‎⁹/L
    • Moderate: 0.5 - 0.9 x 10‎⁹/L
    • Severe: <0.5 x 10‎⁹/L
    • Causes of Neutropaenia

    • Congenital - benign familial neutropaenia, cyclic neutropaenia, severe congenital neutropaenia, certain congenital syndromes
    • Bone marrow pathology -  aplastic anaemia, myelofibrosis, myelodysplasia, acute leukaemia, LGL leukaemia, lymphoma, cancer metastasis
    • Infection - viruses, mycobacteria, typhoid, brucellosis, rickettsia, severe sepsis
    • Autoimmune - primary autoimmune neutropaenia, SLE, rheumatoid arthritis (Felty’s syndrome)
    • Drugs (dose-related or idiosyncratic) - cytotoxic chemotherapy, NSAIDs, sulfasalazine, clozapine, many others
    • Dietary deficiency - B12, folate, copper, alcohol abuse, severe malnutrition
    • Chronic idiopathic neutropaenia
    • Hypersplenism
Last updated on January 19th, 2018
 
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