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February 15th, 2021


Fibrin D-dimer is a measurement of cross-linked fibrin degradation products, generally indicative of clot formation with active clot breakdown.
    • Normal Range

    • <250 ng/mL

Elevated D-Dimer

Elevated D-dimer is a non-specific finding as it can be caused by the myriad of conditions listed below.
  • Causes of Elevated D-Dimer

  • Non-Pathological

  • Advanced age
  • Pregnancy
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Postoperative state
  • Pathological

  • Trauma
  • Infection
  • Inflammation
  • Malignancy
  • Preeclampsia / eclampsia
  • Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
  • Intracardiac thrombus
  • Arterial atheroembolism
  • Venous thromboembolism (e.g. DVT, PE)
  • Superficial thrombophlebitis
  • Myocardial infarction
  • Ischaemic stroke
  • Aortic dissection
  • Thrombolytic therapy
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Congestive cardiac failure
  • Severe liver disease
  • Sickle cell crisis
  • Acute GI haemorrhage

    Elevated D-Dimer and PE

    • Practical Points

    • The D-dimer is sometimes tested as part of the diagnostic workup for pulmonary embolism.
    • The test has a high negative predictive value for PE, meaning that a negative result is useful for ruling out PE in patients who have a low pre-test probability.
    • A positive value should be interpreted with caution and taken in the context of the patient's other clinical features.
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