ABG Interpretation
 

Gap-Gap Ratio

 
 
Bookmark

Overview

  • The gap-gap ratio is used to further assess patients with a high anion gap metabolic acidosis (HAGMA).
  • In these patients, it is difficult to determine whether the HAGMA is the only process occurring, or whether there is additional process present such as a normal anion gap metabolic process, or a metabolic alkalosis.
  • The calculation essentially checks whether the change in anion gap from normal is equivalent to the change in the bicarbonate from normal - i.e. that all of the bicarbonate change is accounted for by a high anion gap process.
  • Gap-gap ratio
    anion gap - 12 24 - HCO₃
  • The expected value for the gap-gap ratio (assuming a HAGMA) is 1.
    • Interpretation

    • Normal gap-gap (1) - isolated high anion gap metabolic acidosis.
    • Low gap-gap (<1) - coexistant high anion gap and normal anion gap metabolic acidoses.
    • High gap-gap (>1) - coexistant metabolic acidosis and metabolic alkalosis.
  • The gap-gap ratio is often used in diabetic ketoacidosis to determine whether an ongoing metabolic acidosis is due to ongoing ketoacidosis, or is due to isotonic saline infusion in the resuscitory period.
Last updated on February 7th, 2020
 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Want more info like this?
  • Your electronic clinical medicine handbook
  • Guides to help pass your exams
  • Tools every medical student needs
  • Quick diagrams to have the answers, fast
  • Quizzes to test your knowledge
Explore
   
 
 

Read More...

 Andersen L, Mackenhauer J, Roberts J, Berg K, Cocchi M, Donnino M. Etiology and Therapeutic Approach to Elevated Lactate Levels. Mayo Clin Proc. 2013;88:1127-1140.
Beasley R, McNaughton A, Robinson G. New look at the oxyhaemoglobin dissociation curve. The Lancet. 2006;367:1124-1126.
 Bellomo R. Bench-to-bedside review: lactate and the kidney. Critical Care 2002;6(4):1. Berend K, de Vries A, Gans R. Physiological Approach to Assessment of Acid-Base Disturbances. N Engl J Med. 2014;371:1434-1445. Brenner BE. Alveolar-arterial oxygen gradients. Ann Emerg Med. 1980;9:648-648. Brindley PG, Butler MS, Cembrowski G, Brindley DN. Falsely elevated point-of-care lactate measurement after ingestion of ethylene glycol. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2007;176(8):1097-9. Donnino MW, Carney E, Cocchi MN, Barbash I, et al. Thiamine deficiency in critically ill patients with sepsis. Journal of critical care 2010;25(4):576-81. Gore DC, Jahoor F, Hibbert JM, DeMaria EJ. Lactic acidosis during sepsis is related to increased pyruvate production, not deficits in tissue oxygen availability. Annals of surgery 1996;224(1):97. Kraut JA, Madias NE. Lactic acidosis. N Engl J Med. 2014; 371: 2309-2319. Levraut J, Ciebiera JP, Chave S, Rabary O, et al. Mild hyperlactatemia in stable septic patients is due to impaired lactate clearance rather than overproduction. Am J RespirCrit Care Med. 1998; 157(4 Pt 1):1021-6. Levy B, Gibot S, Franck P, Cravoisy A, et al. Relation between muscle Na+ K+ ATPase activity and raised lactate concentrations in septic shock: a prospective study. The Lancet 2005;365(9462):871-5. Marino PL. Marino's the ICU Book. Fourthition. ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2014. McCarter FD, Nierman SR, James JH, Wang L, et al. Role of skeletal muscle Na+–K+ ATPase activity in increased lactate production in sub–acute sepsis. Life sciences 2002;70(16):1875-88. Moreau R, Hadengue A, Soupison T, Kirstetter P, et al. Septic shock in patients with cirrhosis: hemodynamic and metabolic characteristics and intensive care unit outcome. Critical care medicine 1992;20(6):746. Perriello G, Jorde R, Nurjhan N, Stumvoll M, et al. Estimation of glucose-alanine-lactate-glutamine cycles in postabsorptive humans: role of skeletal muscle. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism 1995;269(3):E443-50. Phypers B, Pierce JT. Lactate physiology in health and disease. Continuing education in Anaesthesia, critical care & pain. 2006 Jun 1;6(3):128-32. Stacpoole PW. Lactic acidosis. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 1993 Jun; 22(2) 221-45.
Tunney P, Chinnan NK. Serum Lactate in Intensive Care: Practical Points and Pitfalls. inflammation. 2016;6:7.
 Vary TC. Sepsis-induced alterations in pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity in rat skeletal muscle: effects on plasma lactate. Shock 1996;6(2):89-94. Venkatesh B, Morgan T, Garrett P. Measuring the lactate gap. The Lancet 2001;358(9295):1806.
Feedback