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Test Findings

Pulmonary Consolidation



    • Look For

    • Opacification obscuring pulmonary vessels
    • Silhouette signs - obliteration of normally clear outlines between lung fields and adjacent structures
    • Air bronchograms - tubular outlines of smaller airways
    • No loss of lung volume
    • Significance

    • Consolidation indicates filling of the alveoli and bronchioles in the lung with pus (pneumonia), fluid (pulmonary oedema), blood or neoplastic cells.
    • Causes of Pulmonary Consolidation

    • Pneumonia - lobar pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, fungal pneumonia, viral pneumonitis
    • Fluid - pulmonary oedema (cardiogenic / non-cardiogenic)
    • Neoplasm - primary lung cancer, metastases, lymphoma
    • Vascular - pulmonary haemorrhage, contusion or infarct; septic embolism
    • Inflammation - systemic lupus erythematosus, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangitis, Goodpasture’s syndrome, Henoch-Schonlein purpura
    • Cryptogenic organising pneumonia
    • Eosinophilic pneumonia
    • Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis
    • Aspiration pneumonitis
    • Sarcoidosis
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