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Test Findings




Urine does not normally contain protein, as the glomerular filter is too small to allow for filtration of protein.
Protein found in the urine may be albumin or globulins. The dipstick protein test is sensitive for albumin, and less so for globulins.
  • Causes of Proteinuria

  • Glomerular - Primary

  • Minimal change disease
  • Membranous nephropathy
  • Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
  • Glomerular - Secondary

  • Lupus nephritis
  • Diabetic Nephropathy
  • Pre-eclampsia
  • Post-infectious glomerulonephritis
  • Amyloidosis
  • Infections - HBV, HCV, HIV, syphilis, malaria
  • Drugs - gold, NSAIDs, heroin, lithium
  • Malignancy - lung, gastric, colorectal, leukaemia, lymphoma
  • Tubular

  • Acute tubular necrosis
  • Tubulointerstitial nephritis
  • Fanconi syndrome
  • Overflow

  • Multiple myeloma
  • Rhabdomyolysis
  • Heart failure
  • Intense exercise
  • Fever
  • Other

  • Orthostatic proteinuria
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