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Test Findings




  • Urine does not normally contain red blood cells. Their presence suggests glomerulonephropathy, certain other renal conditions, or pathology of the urinary tract.
    • Types of Haematuria

    • Macroscopic haematuria - urinary blood that is evident on inspection of the urine; more likely to represent a urinary tract cause
    • Microscopic haematuria - urinary blood that is only visible using a microscope
    • Causes of Haematuria

    • Renal

    • Congenital glomerulonephropathy - Alport’s syndrome, Fabry’s disease
    • Primary glomerulonephritis - IgA nephropathy, Henoch-Schonlein purpura, Post-infective glomerulonephritis, FSGS, Goodpasture’s syndrome, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
    • Secondary glomerulonephritis - lupus nephritis, haemolytic-uraemic syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopaenic purpura, vasculitis
    • Vascular - arteriovenous malformation, renal vein thrombosis, renal infarct
    • Polycystic kidney disease
    • Urinary Tract

    • Urinary tract infection - urethritis, cystitis, pyelonephritis, prostatitis, tuberculosis
    • Renal calculus
    • Neoplasm - renal, bladder, prostate
    • Inflammation - interstitial cystitis
    • Haemorrhagic cystitis (cyclophosphamide)
    • Trauma
    • Factitious

    • Menstruation
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