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Test Findings
 
 

Haematuria

 
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Overview

Urine does not normally contain red blood cells. Their presence suggests glomerulonephropathy, certain other renal conditions, or pathology of the urinary tract.
  • Types of Haematuria

  • Macroscopic haematuria - urinary blood that is evident on inspection of the urine; more likely to represent a urinary tract cause
  • Microscopic haematuria - urinary blood that is only visible using a microscope
  • Causes of Haematuria

  • Renal

  • Congenital glomerulonephropathy - Alport’s syndrome, Fabry’s disease
  • Primary glomerulonephritis - IgA nephropathy, Henoch-Schonlein purpura, Post-infective glomerulonephritis, FSGS, Goodpasture’s syndrome, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
  • Secondary glomerulonephritis - lupus nephritis, haemolytic-uraemic syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopaenic purpura, vasculitis
  • Vascular - arteriovenous malformation, renal vein thrombosis, renal infarct
  • Polycystic kidney disease
  • Urinary Tract

  • Urinary tract infection - urethritis, cystitis, pyelonephritis, prostatitis, tuberculosis
  • Renal calculus
  • Neoplasm - renal, bladder, prostate
  • Inflammation - interstitial cystitis
  • Haemorrhagic cystitis (cyclophosphamide)
  • Trauma
  • Factitious

  • Menstruation
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