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    • Look For

    • Twisting of the head and neck toward a shortened sternocleidomastoid, with rotation of the chin in the opposite direction. Determine whether this occurs in episodes or is present all of the time.
    • Causes of Torticollis

    • Episodic (Paroxysmal)

    • Benign
    • Spasm
    • Increased ICP
    • GORD - Sandifer syndrome
    • Medications - antipsychotics
    • Psychiatric - conversion disorder
    • Static (Nonparoxysmal)

    • Neurological - brainstem lesion, cerebellar lesion, basal ganglia lesion, spinal cord lesion
    • Bony - congenital, trauma, inflammatory
    • Soft tissue - infectious
    • At birth - breech presentation, birth trauma
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