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Third Heart Sound

 
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Overview

The third heart sound (S3) is a pathological finding associated with rapid ventricular filling.
  • Interpretation

  • Listen for a gallop rhythm with an extra heart sound just after S2. This is best heard with the bell of the stethoscope at the apex.
  • Causes of Third Heart Sound

  • Normal in children and young adults
  • Left ventricular failure
  • Severe mitral regurgitation
  • Severe aortic regurgitation
  • Constrictive pericarditis
Gallop rhythms are so named due to the similarity of their cadence with that of the sound of a horse galloping.
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