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Raynaud's Phenomenon

March 3rd, 2023


An episode of Raynaud's phenomenon manifests as subsequent white, blue and then red discolouration of the fingers (or toes) due to ischaemia, cyanosis and then hyperaemia. These may occur in response to cold or emotional stress.
  • Look For

  • Areas of white, blue or red change in the hands.
  • Causes of Raynaud's Phenomenon

  • Raynaud's disease (primary / idiopathic)
  • Connective tissue disease - scleroderma, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, mixed connective tissue disease, inflammatory myopathies
  • Arterial occlusion - acute ischaemia, peripheral vascular disease, thromboangiitis obliterans, thoracic outlet obstruction
  • Haematologic - cold agglutinin disease, paraproteinaemia, cryoglobulinaemia, Waldenstrom's
  • Trauma - vibration injury, cold injury
  • Drugs - beta blockers, ergotamine, chemotherapy
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