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  • Ptosis refers to lowering of the eyelid, either partially or completely. This may be due to structural, neurologic or muscular disease.
    • Causes of Ptosis

    • Unilateral

    • Congenital
    • Structural - trauma, tumour, swelling
    • Sympathetic - Horner’s syndrome (partial ptosis)
    • Central - hemifacial spasm, blepharospasm
    • Oculomotor palsy
    • Bilateral

    • Neuromuscular - myasthenia gravis
    • Muscular - muscular dystrophy, ocular myopathy, Grave’s ophthalmopathy
    • Situational - fatigue, coma, psychological
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