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March 28th, 2020


Hypertension refers to a persistent elevation in blood pressure. This may be primary and of unknown aetiology, or secondary to a process that raises the blood pressure.
  • Classification

  • Normal <120/80
  • Pre-hypertension 120/80 - 139/89
  • Stage I hypertension 140/90 - 159/99
  • Stage II hypertension >160/100
  • Causes of Hypertension

  • Primary

  • Essential hypertension: unknown aetiologyThe most common cause of hypertension
  • Secondary

  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Renal artery stenosis - fibromuscular dysplasia, atherosclerosis
  • Endocrine - hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, primary aldosteronism, phaeochromocytoma, hyperparathyroidism
  • Drugs - NSAIDs, amphetamines, glucocorticoids, fludrocortisone, erythropoietin, VEGF inhibitors, calcineurin inhibitors
  • Aortic coarctation
  • Obstructive sleep apnoea
  • Factitious

  • White coat hypertension: due to by anxiety in a healthcare setting
  • Recent exercise or caffeine intake
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