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Hypertension

Overview

    • Classification

      Persistent high blood pressure
    • Normal <120 / 80
    • Pre-hypertension 120/80 - 139/89
    • Stage I hypertension 140/90 - 159/99
    • Stage II hypertension >160/100
    • Causes of Hypertension

    • Primary

    • Essential hypertension: unknown aetiologyThe most common cause of hypertension
    • Secondary

    • Chronic kidney disease
    • Renal artery stenosis - fibromuscular dysplasia, atherosclerosis
    • Endocrine - hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, primary aldosteronism, phaeochromocytoma, hyperparathyroidism
    • Drugs - NSAIDs, amphetamines, glucocorticoids, fludrocortisone, erythropoietin, VEGF inhibitors, calcineurin inhibitors
    • Aortic coarctation
    • Obstructive sleep apnoea
    • Factitious

    • White coat hypertension: due to by anxiety in a healthcare setting
    • Recent exercise or caffeine intake
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Associated Diseases
BETA

Cardiovascular
Endocrinology
Renal & Urinary
Respiratory
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