MedSchool: Ace Your OSCEsThe Medical Company
GET - On the App Store




  • Hypertension refers to a persistent elevation in blood pressure. This may be primary and of unknown aetiology, or secondary to a process that raises the blood pressure.
    • Classification

    • Normal <120/80
    • Pre-hypertension 120/80 - 139/89
    • Stage I hypertension 140/90 - 159/99
    • Stage II hypertension >160/100
    • Causes of Hypertension

    • Primary

    • Essential hypertension: unknown aetiologyThe most common cause of hypertension
    • Secondary

    • Chronic kidney disease
    • Renal artery stenosis - fibromuscular dysplasia, atherosclerosis
    • Endocrine - hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, primary aldosteronism, phaeochromocytoma, hyperparathyroidism
    • Drugs - NSAIDs, amphetamines, glucocorticoids, fludrocortisone, erythropoietin, VEGF inhibitors, calcineurin inhibitors
    • Aortic coarctation
    • Obstructive sleep apnoea
    • Factitious

    • White coat hypertension: due to by anxiety in a healthcare setting
    • Recent exercise or caffeine intake
Want more info like this?
  • Your electronic clinical medicine handbook
  • Guides to help pass your exams
  • Tools every medical student needs
  • Quick diagrams to have the answers, fast
  • Quizzes to test your knowledge
Sign Up Now