Signs
 

Hypertension

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Overview

  • Hypertension refers to a persistent elevation in blood pressure. This may be primary and of unknown aetiology, or secondary to a process that raises the blood pressure.
    • Classification

    • Normal <120/80
    • Pre-hypertension 120/80 - 139/89
    • Stage I hypertension 140/90 - 159/99
    • Stage II hypertension >160/100
    • Causes of Hypertension

    • Primary

    • Essential hypertension: unknown aetiologyThe most common cause of hypertension
    • Secondary

    • Chronic kidney disease
    • Renal artery stenosis - fibromuscular dysplasia, atherosclerosis
    • Endocrine - hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, primary aldosteronism, phaeochromocytoma, hyperparathyroidism
    • Drugs - NSAIDs, amphetamines, glucocorticoids, fludrocortisone, erythropoietin, VEGF inhibitors, calcineurin inhibitors
    • Aortic coarctation
    • Obstructive sleep apnoea
    • Factitious

    • White coat hypertension: due to by anxiety in a healthcare setting
    • Recent exercise or caffeine intake
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