Signs
 

Hoarseness

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Overview

    • How to Assess

    • Listen for hoarseness while taking the history. Ask the patient to cough.
    • Causes of Hoarseness (Dysphonia) or Hoarse Cough

    • Neurological

    • Trauma - vagus / recurrent laryngeal nerve
    • Infection - meningitis, diptheria
    • Tumour
    • Small-vessel ischaemia
    • Multiple sclerosis
    • Parkinson’s disease
    • Neuromuscular / Muscular

    • Myasthenia gravis
    • Spasmodic dysphonia
    • Upper Respiratory

    • Irritation - alcohol, tobacco, reflux, pollutants, inhaled chemicals
    • Laryngitis - viral, bacterial, fungal
    • Vocal cord trauma - direct trauma, chronic cough, vocal abuse
    • Vocal cord mass - nodules, polyps, cyst, tumour
    • Medications - ACE inhibitors, antihistamines, inhaled steroids
    • Other

    • Psychogenic
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