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Signs
 
 

Hoarseness

 
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Overview

  • How to Assess

  • Listen for hoarseness while taking the history. Ask the patient to cough.
  • Causes of Hoarseness (Dysphonia) or Hoarse Cough

  • Neurological

  • Trauma - vagus / recurrent laryngeal nerve
  • Infection - meningitis, diptheria
  • Tumour
  • Small-vessel ischaemia
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Neuromuscular / Muscular

  • Myasthenia gravis
  • Spasmodic dysphonia
  • Upper Respiratory

  • Irritation - alcohol, tobacco, reflux, pollutants, inhaled chemicals
  • Laryngitis - viral, bacterial, fungal
  • Vocal cord trauma - direct trauma, chronic cough, vocal abuse
  • Vocal cord mass - nodules, polyps, cyst, tumour
  • Medications - ACE inhibitors, antihistamines, inhaled steroids
  • Other

  • Psychogenic
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