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Hallucinations

Overview

  • Hallucinations are abnormal sensory symptoms that may manifest as visual, auditory, tactile or extraordinary disturbances. Hallucinations may be caused by organic disease or psychiatric disorders.
    • Types of Hallucinations

    • Auditory hallucinations - including commentary, insulting voices, Gedanklautwerden, echo de la pensee
    • Visual hallucinations - may be simple (such as flashes or colours) or complex (such as people, animals or objects)
    • Olfactory / gustatory hallucinationsSuggestive of frontal / temporal injury
    • Tactile hallucinationsCan occur in delerium tremens or with cocaine
    • Extracampine hallucinations: sensations that would be physically impossible, such as seeing through walls
    • Causes of Hallucinations

    • Psychiatric - schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, psychotic depression, delirium, Lewy body dementia
    • Neurological - space-occupying lesion, temporal lobe epilepsy, migraine
    • Metabolic - hepatic encephalopathy
    • Drugs - amphetamines, delirium tremens
  • Once hallucinations stop, patients with organic disease tend to recognise that they were false, while patients with functional illness tend to maintain a lack of insight.
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Associated Diseases
BETA

Neurological
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CNS Cancers
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