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Halitosis

Overview

  • Halitosis is also known as foetor ex ore, oral malodour and 'bad breath'. The term refers to an offensive odour that may resemble rotten eggs / meat / fish or faeces.
  • This finding is suggestive of bacterial colonisation in the mouth, pharynx, respiratory or gastrointestinal tracts.
    • Causes of Halitosis

    • Oropharyngeal

    • Xerostomia (dry mouth)
    • Poor oral hygiene
    • Mouth ulcer
    • Dental caries
    • Gingivitis
    • Tongue colonisation
    • Tonsilitis
    • Sinusitis
    • Gastrointestinal

    • Reflux
    • H pylori infection
    • Crohn's disease
    • Respiratory

    • Bronchiectasis
    • Bronchial tumour
    • Systemic

    • Cirrhosis
    • Ketosis
    • Alcohol
    • Uraemia
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Associated Diseases
BETA

Gastrointestinal
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Respiratory
Other
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