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Halitosis is also known as foetor ex ore, oral malodour and 'bad breath'. The term refers to an offensive odour that may resemble rotten eggs / meat / fish or faeces.
This finding is suggestive of bacterial colonisation in the mouth, pharynx, respiratory or gastrointestinal tracts.
  • Causes of Halitosis

  • Oropharyngeal

  • Xerostomia (dry mouth)
  • Poor oral hygiene
  • Mouth ulcer
  • Dental caries
  • Gingivitis
  • Tongue colonisation
  • Tonsilitis
  • Sinusitis
  • Gastrointestinal

  • Reflux
  • H pylori infection
  • Crohn's disease
  • Respiratory

  • Bronchiectasis
  • Bronchial tumour
  • Systemic

  • Cirrhosis
  • Ketosis
  • Alcohol
  • Uraemia
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