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  • Diplopia refers to double vision, which may be binocular (due to disordered conjugate gaze) or monocular.
    • Ask About

    • Double vision as the patient moves their eyes. Identify whether this is on looking centrally, laterally, inferiorly or superiorly.
  • If diplopia is present, ask the patient to cover one eye. Determine whether the diplopia originates from a single eye (monocular), and whether the eyes are aligned.
    • Interpretation

    • Monocular diplopiaCerebral polyopia, refractive error, retinal disease
    • Non-misaligned - no strabusmus presentPhysiologic, macular disease, refractive asymmetry, multiple sclerosis, myaesthenia gravis
    • Horizontal diplopia - double vision on lateral gaze associated with strabismus Intraocular / orbital mass, CN VI palsy, CNS lesion, Graves disease, myaesthenia gravis
    • Vertical diplopia - double vision on superior / inferior gaze associated with strabismus Intraocular / orbital mass, CN III / IV palsy, CNS lesion, myaesthenia gravis
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