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List of Signs

 

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

N

O

P

R

S

T

U

V

W

X

Z

 
 

Central Visual Fields

  • Includes the inner 30 degrees of vision.
    • How to Assess
    • Ask the patient to cover one eye. Move a red examination pin from lateral to medial, asking the patient when they can see the pin as red. Ask the patient if the pin disappears at any time.
    • Interpretation
    • Physiologic scotoma (blind spot) - at 15 degrees temporally, due to the entry of the optic nerve.
    • Ring scotoma
      Retinal degeneration
    • Central scotoma
      Macular or optic nerve pathology
    • Generalised scotoma
      Corneal, vitreal, retinal, optic nerve or intracranial pathology
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