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  • Heart rate less than 60 beats per minute.
    • Causes of Bradycardia

    • Sinus Bradycardia

    • Sinus node disease - idiopathic degeneration, myocardial infarction, infiltration, connective tissue disease, cardiac surgery, Lyme disease, endocarditis
    • Physiological - high cardiac fitness
    • Autonomic - neurocardiogenic syncope, carotid sinus hypersensitivity
    • Drugs - beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, digoxin, adenosine, ivabradine, clonidine, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors
    • Hypothyroidism
    • Hypothermia
    • Hyperkalaemia
    • Obstructive sleep apnoea
    • Raised intracranial pressure
    • Other Rhythms

    • Sinus node - sinus arrhythmia, sinus arrest, second or third degree sinoatrial exit block
    • Atrial - atrial fibrillation with slow ventricular response, atrial flutter with variable block, trial escape rhythm
    • AV node - second or third degree atrioventricular block, junctional escape rhythm
    • Ventricular escape rhythm
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