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March 28th, 2020


Heart rate less than 60 beats per minute.
  • Causes of Bradycardia

  • Sinus Bradycardia

  • Sinus node disease - idiopathic degeneration, myocardial infarction, infiltration, connective tissue disease, cardiac surgery, Lyme disease, endocarditis
  • Physiological - high cardiac fitness
  • Autonomic - neurocardiogenic syncope, carotid sinus hypersensitivity
  • Drugs - beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, digoxin, adenosine, ivabradine, clonidine, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Hypothermia
  • Hyperkalaemia
  • Obstructive sleep apnoea
  • Raised intracranial pressure
  • Other Rhythms

  • Sinus node - sinus arrhythmia, sinus arrest, second or third degree sinoatrial exit block
  • Atrial - atrial fibrillation with slow ventricular response, atrial flutter with variable block, trial escape rhythm
  • AV node - second or third degree atrioventricular block, junctional escape rhythm
  • Ventricular escape rhythm
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