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Obstructive Sleep Apnoea History

 
 
 
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Overview

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  • Diagnosis - when diagnosed, sleep study results
  • Severity - symptoms, impact on function
  • Management - weight loss, CPAP, surgery
  • Complications - cardiovascular disease, pulmonary hypertension, depression
  • Risk Factors for Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

  • Obesity
  • Male gender
  • Craniofacial abnormalities - retrognathia
  • Upper airway narrowing - enlarged tonsils, macroglossia, narrow nasal cavity
  • Alcohol excess
  • Smoking

Severity

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  • Symptoms - snoring, apnoeas, excessive daytime somnolence, poor concentration
  • Impact on functional status
  • Motor vehicle accidents
  • Sleep study result - apnoea-hypopnoea index
  • Severity of Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

    Based on the apnoea-hypopnoea index on sleep study
  • Mild: 5-15
  • Moderate: 15-30
  • Severe: >30

Complications

  • Complications of Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

  • Hypertension
  • Ischaemic heart disease
  • Cerebrovascular disease
  • Pulmonary hypertension
  • Atrial fibrillation
  • Depression

Management

  • Management Options

  • Weight loss
  • Treatment of upper airway obstruction - mandible advancement splints, surgical correction
  • Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) at night
  • Smoking cessation
  • Alcohol reduction
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