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Haem Exam

The Patient
The Hands
The Arms
The Face
The Neck
The Chest
The Abdomen
The Pelvis
The Back
The Legs

The Nails



    • Look For
    • Spoon-shaped nails.
    • Significance
    • May be an indicator of iron deficiency anaemia.
    • Causes of Koilonychia
    • Chronic iron deficiency
    • Upper GI carcinoma
    • High altitude
    • Trauma
    • Hypothyroidism
    • Systemic lupus erythematosus

Pallor of the Nail Bed

    • Look For
    • Whitening of the nail beds.
    • Causes of Pallor of the Nail Bed
    • Anaemia
    • Low cardiac output, due to cardiac disease
    • Peripheral shutdown, due to increased sympathetic activity.