Haem Exam


The Patient

The Hands

The Arms

The Face

The Neck

The Chest

The Abdomen

The Pelvis

The Back

The Legs

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The Nails

    • Look For
    • Spoon-shaped nails.
    • Significance
    • May be an indicator of iron deficiency anaemia.
    • Causes of Koilonychia
    • Chronic iron deficiency
    • Upper GI carcinoma
    • High altitude
    • Trauma
    • Hypothyroidism
    • Systemic lupus erythematosus
Pallor of the Nail Bed
    • Look For
    • Whitening of the nail beds.
    • Causes of Pallor of the Nail Bed
    • Anaemia
    • Low cardiac output, due to cardiac disease
    • Peripheral shutdown, due to increased sympathetic activity.