Haem Exam


The Patient

The Hands

The Arms

The Face

The Neck

The Chest

The Abdomen

The Pelvis

The Back

The Legs

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The Mouth

Oral Candidiasis
    • Look For
    • Creamy white lesions present on the tongue or inner cheeks, which may be associated with angular cheilitis or glossitis.
    • Significance
    • Infection with Candida species.
    • Risk Factors
    • Dry mouth
    • Inhaled steroids
    • Immunosuppression
    • Antibiotic use
    • Smoking
    • Diabetes
Mouth Ulcers
    • Look For
    • Ulcers in the mouth, noting their number, size, colour and distribution.
    • Significance
    • May be an indicator of leukaemia or bacterial infection secondary to agranulocytosis.
    • Causes of Mouth Ulcers
    • Trauma - mechanical / chemical / radiation
    • Aphthous stomatitis
    • Dermatoses - pemphigus, lichen planus, erythema multiforme
    • Infection - herpes simplex (cold sore), varicella zoster (chickenpox / shingles), coxsackie (hand, foot and mouth), syphilis, bacterial, candidiasis
    • Rheumatological - SLE, Reiter’s syndrome
    • GIT - Crohn’s / ulcerative colitis, coeliac disease
    • Drugs - antineoplastics
    • Malignancy - especially leukaemia