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Haem Exam
Haem Exam
When examining a patient's haematologic system, remember the three key cell lines and the major manifestations that can result from their derangement: anaemia, infection and bleeding / bruising. The haematology exam is also used to identify signs of malignancy, such as lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly.

The Mouth


Oral Candidiasis

    • Look For

    • Creamy white lesions present on the tongue or inner cheeks, which may be associated with angular cheilitis or glossitis.
    • Significance

    • Infection with Candida species.
    • Risk Factors

    • Dry mouth
    • Inhaled steroids
    • Immunosuppression
    • Antibiotic use
    • Smoking
    • Diabetes

Mouth Ulcers

    • Look For

    • Ulcers in the mouth, noting their number, size, colour and distribution.
    • Significance

    • May be an indicator of leukaemia or bacterial infection secondary to agranulocytosis.
    • Causes of Mouth Ulcers

    • Trauma - mechanical / chemical / radiation
    • Aphthous stomatitis
    • Dermatoses - pemphigus, lichen planus, erythema multiforme
    • Infection - herpes simplex (cold sore), varicella zoster, coxsackie (hand, foot and mouth), syphilis, bacterial, candidiasis
    • Rheumatological - SLE, Reiter’s syndrome
    • GIT - Crohn’s, coeliac disease
    • Drugs - antineoplastics
    • Malignancy - especially leukaemia
Last updated on January 1st, 2017

Associated Diseases

Infectious Diseases
Herpes Zoster