Haem Exam


The Patient

The Hands

The Arms

The Face

The Neck

The Chest

The Abdomen

The Pelvis

The Back

The Legs

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The Gums

Gingival Inflammation
    • Look For
    • Swelling and erythema of the gums.
    • Interpretation
    • Gingivitis - generalised swelling and erythema.Viral infection, bacterial infection, fungal infection, trauma, lichen planus, pemphigoid, erythema multiforme, SLE, drugs, malnutrition
    • Abscess - localised swelling and erythema.Bacterial infection
    • Pericoronitis - inflammation surrounding a partially erupted tooth (e.g. wisdom tooth).
Gingival Bleeding
    • Look For
    • Bleeding from the gums.
    • Causes of Gingival Bleeding
    • Trauma - mechanical, chemical, radiation
    • Bleeding disorder - defects of bone marrow / platelets / factors / vitamin K, medications
    • Infection - viral, bacterial, fungal
    • Dermatosis
    • Erythema multiforme
    • Connective tissue disorders - SLE, scurvy
    • Drugs
Gingival Hypertrophy
    • Look For
    • Enlargement of the gums without inflammation.
    • Significance
    • May be a sign of acute myeloid leukaemia.
    • Causes of Gingival Hypertrophy
    • Drugs - phenytoin, calcium channel blockers, cyclosporine
    • Acute myeloid leukaemia
    • Pregnancy
    • Idiopathic