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Haem Exam
Haem Exam
When examining a patient's haematologic system, remember the three key cell lines and the major manifestations that can result from their derangement: anaemia, infection and bleeding / bruising. The haematology exam is also used to identify signs of malignancy, such as lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly.

The Gums


Gingival Inflammation

    • Look For

    • Swelling and erythema of the gums.
    • Interpretation

    • Gingivitis - generalised swelling and erythema.
    • Abscess - localised swelling and erythema.
    • Pericoronitis - inflammation surrounding a partially erupted tooth (e.g. wisdom tooth).
    • Causes of Gingival Inflammation

    • Infection - bacterial, viral, fungal
    • Trauma
    • Dermatologic - lichen planus, pemphygoid, erythema multiforme
    • Systemic lupus erythematosus
    • Malnutrition

Gingival Bleeding

    • Look For

    • Bleeding from the gums.
    • Causes of Gingival Bleeding

    • Trauma - mechanical, chemical, radiation
    • Bleeding disorder - defects of bone marrow / platelets / factors / vitamin K, medications
    • Infection - viral, bacterial, fungal
    • Dermatosis
    • Erythema multiforme
    • Connective tissue disorders - SLE, scurvy
    • Drugs

Gingival Hypertrophy

    • Look For

    • Enlargement of the gums without inflammation.
    • Significance

    • May be a sign of acute myeloid leukaemia.
    • Causes of Gingival Hypertrophy

    • Drugs - phenytoin, calcium channel blockers, cyclosporine
    • Acute myeloid leukaemia
    • Pregnancy
    • Idiopathic
Last updated on January 1st, 2017

Associated Diseases

Coagulation Disorders
Red Cell Disorders
Haematologic Malignancy
Nutrition & Metabolic

Associated Drugs

Calcium Channel Blockers