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Haem Exam

 
 
 
The Patient
The Hands
The Arms
The Face
The Neck
The Chest
The Abdomen
The Pelvis
The Back
The Legs
 
 

The Gums

 
 

Gingival Inflammation

    • Look For
    • Swelling and erythema of the gums.
    • Interpretation
    • Gingivitis - generalised swelling and erythema.
    • Abscess - localised swelling and erythema.
    • Pericoronitis - inflammation surrounding a partially erupted tooth (e.g. wisdom tooth).
    • Causes of Gingival Inflammation
    • Infection - bacterial, viral, fungal
    • Trauma
    • Dermatologic - lichen planus, pemphygoid, erythema multiforme
    • Systemic lupus erythematosus
    • Malnutrition

Gingival Bleeding

    • Look For
    • Bleeding from the gums.
    • Causes of Gingival Bleeding
    • Trauma - mechanical, chemical, radiation
    • Bleeding disorder - defects of bone marrow / platelets / factors / vitamin K, medications
    • Infection - viral, bacterial, fungal
    • Dermatosis
    • Erythema multiforme
    • Connective tissue disorders - SLE, scurvy
    • Drugs

Gingival Hypertrophy

    • Look For
    • Enlargement of the gums without inflammation.
    • Significance
    • May be a sign of acute myeloid leukaemia.
    • Causes of Gingival Hypertrophy
    • Drugs - phenytoin, calcium channel blockers, cyclosporine
    • Acute myeloid leukaemia
    • Pregnancy
    • Idiopathic
 
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