Haem Exam


The Patient

The Hands

The Arms

The Face

The Neck

The Chest

The Abdomen

The Pelvis

The Back

The Legs

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Conjunctival Pallor
    • How to Elicit
    • Pull the lower eyelid downward and inspect the inner eyelid. Conjunctival pallor is present if there is loss of the normal redness of the anterior rim of the conjunctiva.
    • Significance
    • A sign of severe anaemia.
Subconjunctival Haemorrhage
    • Look For
    • Redness beneath the conjuncctiva due to bleeding
    • Significance
    • May be a sign of coagulopathy.
    • Causes of Subconjunctival Haemorrhage
    • Idiopathic
    • Ocular damage - trauma, contact lens use, surgery
    • Vascular damage - hypertension, diabetes, atherosclerosis
    • Conjunctivitis
    • Conjunctival tumour
Scleral Icterus
    • Look For
    • Yellowness of the conjunctiva overlying the sclera.
    • Significance
    • A relatively sensitive indicator of jaundice, occurring prior to the development of colour change in the skin.