Haem Exam


The Patient

The Hands

The Arms

The Face

The Neck

The Chest

The Abdomen

The Pelvis

The Back

The Legs

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Cervical Lymphadenopathy

    • How to Perform
    • Using the pulps of the fingers, gently palpate each of the lymph node groups within the cervical and axillary regions.
    • Feel For
    • Size - normally <10mm
    • Tenderness
    • Consistency - hard (metastasis), rubbery (lymphoma), soft (reactive)
    • Mobility - mobile or tethered to underlying structures
    • Causes of Lymphadenopathy
    • Bacterial infection - localised infection, skin infection, tuberculosis / MAC, syphilis, cat-scratch disease
    • Viral infection - EBV, CMV, HIV, herpes simplex, rubella
    • Parasitic infection - toxoplasmosis
    • Malignancy - lymphoma, leukaemia, metastasis
    • Inflammatory disorders - lupus, rheumatoid arthritis
    • Sarcoidosis
    • Medications - allopurinol, atenolol, cephalosporins, penicillin, phenytoin, carbemazepine
    • Storage disorders
    • Benign idiopathic lymphadenopathy
Cervical Lymph Nodes
  • Submental nodes - immediately below the chinTeeth, oral mucosa, tongue
  • Submandibular nodes - Along the angle of the mandibleFloor of mouth
  • Anterior cervical nodes - over the sternocleidomastoidPosterior pharynx, tonsils, parotid
  • Posterior cervical nodes - posterior to sternocleidomastoidsScalp, posterior neck
  • Suboccipital nodes - below the occiputInferior scalp
  • Preauricular nodes - Anterior to the pinnaEyelids, conjunctivae
  • Postauricular nodes - posterior to the pinnaExternal auditory meatus, pinna, scalp
  • Right supraclavicular node - in the right supraclavicular fossaMediastinum, lungs, oesophagus
  • Left supraclavicular node (Virchow's node) - in the left supraclavicular fossaChest, abdomen