Diabetic Exam
 

Breathing

 
 
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Cheyne-Stokes Respiration

    • Look For

    • Periods of hyperventilation interspersed with periods of apnoea or bradypnoea.
    • Significance

    • Cheyne-Stokes respiration occurs when hyperventilation lowers the arterial CO₂ below the apnoeic threshold.
    • Causes of Cheyne-Stokes Respiration

    • Physiological - at high altitudes
    • Obstructive sleep apnoea
    • Congestive cardiac failure
    • CNS - stroke, traumatic brain injury, tumour

Kussmaul Respiration

    • Look For

    • Deep, rapid respiration.
    • Significance

    • Associated with severe metabolic acidosis, especially diabetic ketoacidosis.
 
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