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Diabetic Exam
 
 
 
 
Diabetic Exam
Poor diabetic control may manifest in many different ways, with macrovascular and microvascular complications. The diabetic examination is useful for diagnosing these complications, particularly when it comes to the vascular and neurologic examination of the lower limb.
 

Breathing

 
 

Cheyne-Stokes Respiration

    • Look For

    • Periods of hyperventilation interspersed with periods of apnoea or bradypnoea.
    • Significance

    • Cheyne-Stokes respiration occurs when hyperventilation lowers the arterial CO₂ below the apnoeic threshold.
    • Causes of Cheyne-Stokes Respiration

    • Physiological - at high altitudes
    • Obstructive sleep apnoea
    • Congestive cardiac failure
    • CNS - stroke, traumatic brain injury, tumour

Kussmaul Respiration

    • Look For

    • Deep, rapid respiration.
    • Significance

    • Associated with severe metabolic acidosis, especially diabetic ketoacidosis.
Last updated on November 28th, 2019
 
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