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Deteriorating Patient
Deteriorating Patient


February 15th, 2021


Look for swelling of the lower limbs; apply pressure to the anterior aspect of the tibia for fifteen seconds and then release to assess for pitting oedema.
  • Causes of Oedema

  • Pitting

  • Fluid overload - excessive IV fluids, renal failure, heart failure
  • Right ventricular failure
  • Venous pathology - thrombosis / insufficiency
  • Dependency (the effect of gravity)
  • Hypoalbuminaemia - malnutrition, malabsorption, nephrotic syndrome, liver (synthetic) failure
  • Non-Pitting

  • Impaired lymphatic drainage
  • Pretibial myxoedema (hypothyroidism)
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