- The ability to recall old memories prior to significant brain injury or psycho-trauma.
- Recent memory - what is my name; what did you have for breakfast; what meds did you take today?
- Remote memory - when and where did you get married?
Causes of Amnesia
- Intracranial - stroke, trauma, tumour, infection, epilepsy, degenerative disease
- Substances - intoxication, withdrawal, Korsakoff’s
- Psychiatric - schizophrenia, psychogenic amnesia
- Insufficiency - liver, heart, kidneys
- Hypoxia / anoxia
- Loss of recent memory (minutes or hours prior to injury)Mild to moderate brain damage (concussion)
- Loss of remote memory (months of years)Convulsive therapy
- Temporal grading: sparing of the most distant memoriesKorsakoff syndrome, thalamic or frontal damage
- Flat profile: equal loss of memory with no temporal gradingHerpes simplex encephalitis, multiple sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia