Cognitive Exam
Cognitive Exam
 

Retrograde Memory

 
 
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Overview

  • The ability to recall old memories prior to significant brain injury or psycho-trauma.
    • Ask About

    • Recent memory - what is my name; what did you have for breakfast; what meds did you take today?
    • Remote memory - when and where did you get married?
    • Causes of Amnesia

    • Intracranial - stroke, trauma, tumour, infection, epilepsy, degenerative disease
    • Substances - intoxication, withdrawal, Korsakoff’s
    • Psychiatric - schizophrenia, psychogenic amnesia
    • Insufficiency - liver, heart, kidneys
    • Hypoxia / anoxia
    • Malingering
    • Interpretation

    • Loss of recent memory (minutes or hours prior to injury)Mild to moderate brain damage (concussion)
    • Loss of remote memory (months of years)Convulsive therapy
    • Temporal grading: sparing of the most distant memoriesKorsakoff syndrome, thalamic or frontal damage
    • Flat profile: equal loss of memory with no temporal gradingHerpes simplex encephalitis, multiple sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia
Last updated on January 1st, 2017
 
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