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Cognitive Exam
Cognitive Exam
The neurocognitive examination is a comprehensive assessment of a patient's higher centres, assessing aspects such as orientation, attention, language, memory and executive function.

Assessment of Reading



  • Show the patient a list of words and ask them to read the words out loud, or ask them to read a few sentences from a newspaper.
    • Interpretation

    • Pure alexia: reading of words letter-by-letter.
    • Surface dyslexia: ability to phonetically sound out words (breed, steam), but difficulty reading words with irregular spelling (debt, colonel, broad, steak).
    • Phonological dyslexia: inability to read non-words (neg, bluck, deak) with otherwise normal reading of words.
    • Deep dyslexia: semantic errors (e.g. reading the word ‘table’ as ‘chair’ or ‘street’ as ‘road’), and inability to read plausible non-words (neg, bluck, deak).Stroke, traumatic brain injury
    • Neglect dyslexia: the patient omits or substitutes part of a word, especially at the beginning of the word. For example, island / land or fish / dish.Dominant hemispheric damage
    • Note

    • The term ‘dyslexia' is colloquially used to denote ‘developmental dyslexia', which is a global difficulty in reading beginning in childhood that may progress to adulthood. The dyslexias identified above are specific defects that are generally acquired rather than developmental.
Last updated on January 1st, 2017