Left Ventricular Failure | Cardio Exam - MedSchool
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Cardio Exam
Cardio Exam
Left heart failure typically manifests with interstitial and pulmonary oedema, and is most commonly caused by pathology affecting the left ventricular myocardium.

Left Ventricular Failure



  • Left heart failure typically manifests with interstitial and pulmonary oedema, and is most commonly caused by pathology affecting the left ventricular myocardium.
    • Signs of Left Ventricular Failure

    • Sarcopaenia (muscle wasting)
    • Tachycardia
    • Pulsus alternans: regular alternation between strong and weak beats
    • Displaced apex
    • Presence of third heart sound (S3)
    • Pulmonary crepitations / wheeze
    • Causes of Left Ventricular Failure

    • Ischaemic heart disease
    • Cardiomyopathy
    • Myocarditis
    • Pericardial disease
    • Valvular disease
    • Congenital heart disease
    • Hypertension


    • Complications of Left Ventricular Failure

    • Arrhythmias - atrial fibrillation, ventricular arrhythmias
    • Stroke
    • Sarcopaenia
    • Pulmonary oedema
    • Pulmonary hypertension
Last updated on January 24th, 2020


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