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Cardio Exam

Clubbing of the Toes

July 1st, 2020


  • Look For

  • Enlargement of the distal segments of the fingers and / or toes, due to proliferation of connective tissue.
  • Causes of Clubbing of the Toes

  • Cyanotic congenital heart disease
  • Pulmonary malignancy - lung cancer, lymphoma, mesothelioma
  • Chronic infection / inflammation - bronchiectasis, lung abscess, empyema, interstitial lung disease, coeliac disease, IBD, infective endocarditis
  • Cirrhosis
Clubbing was first described by Hippocrates in 400BC after noting the sign in a patient with empyema.
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