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Cardio Exam

Aortic Stenosis

July 1st, 2020


Aortic stenosis manifests as an ejection (mid) systolic murmur best heard over the base of the heart, associated with narrowed pulse pressure and reduced intensity of S2.
  • Signs of Aortic Stenosis

  • Peripheral Signs

  • Anacrotic pulse - small volume pulse with a slow upstroke and a notched wave on the upstroke
  • Narrow pulse pressure
  • Central Signs

  • Aortic thrill
  • Pressure-loaded apex beat - forceful and sustained impulses
  • Soft second heart sound (S2)
  • Ejection systolic murmur - heard best over the aortic area in expiration
  • Signs of Complications

  • Evidence of left ventricular failure - pulsus alternans, pulmonary crepitations
  • Causes of Aortic Stenosis

  • Calcific degeneration
  • Rheumatic heart disease
  • Congenital bicuspid aortic valve
  • Infective endocarditis
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