Drug Guide
 

Phenytoin

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    Oral / IV
    Phenytoin
    Dilantin 
    • Mechanism of Action
    • Inhibits voltage-gated sodium channels, preventing propagation of action potentials and thus suppressing seizure activity.
    • Pharmacology
    • Non-linear pharmacokinetics – small dose changes can result in large changes in plasma concentration.
    • Co-administration with valproate results in increased serum concentrations of phenytoin

Clinical Use

    • Indications
    • Generalised tonic-clonic seizures
    • Status epilepticus (IV)
    • Adverse Effects
    • Nausea / vomiting
    • Hirsutism
    • CNS disturbances – drowsiness, tremor, dysarthria, diplopia
    • Purple glove syndrome (IV) – distal limb discolouration, pain and swelling
    • Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome (prolonged admin) – fever, rash, lymphadenopathy, hepatitis, myositis
    • Monitoring
    • Plasma concentration should be monitored in order to ensure therapeutic effect.
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