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Drug Guide


    IV infusion
  • Mechanism of Action
  • A monoclonal antibody against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), a T cell inhibitory molecule that binds to B7 and prevents its binding to CD28.
  • The B7 : CD28 complex normally potentiates the binding of T cell receptors to MHC/antigen complexes on antigen-presenting cells, stimulating T cell proliferation and differentiation.
  • CTLA-4 is expressed on the surface of T cells after activation, and provides inhibitory signalling to T cells by binding B7.
  • Binding to anti-CTLA-4 antibodies to CTLA-4 leaves B7 free to continue to bind to CD28 and provide ongoing T cell costimulation.

Clinical Use

  • Indications
  • Unresectable or metastatic melanoma
  • Intermediate / poor risk advanced renal cell carcinoma
  • Adverse Effects
  • Endocrinopathies - hypopituitarism, hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency
  • GI toxicity - colitis
  • Hepatotoxicity - LFT derangement
  • Skin - rash / pruritis
  • Nausea / vomiting / diarrhoea
  • Fatigue
  • Headache
  • Tremor
  • Cough
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