- Mechanism of Action
- Competitively inhibit the action of adrenaline and noradrenaline on β1 receptors (the predominant β receptors in the heart), resulting in suppression of the sympathetic nervous system with negative inotropy, chronotropy, dromotropy and lusiotropy.
- Hypertension – second-line therapy, especially indicated for patients with stable angina or post MI.
- Rate control for atrial fibrillation
- Prophylaxis for paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia
- Post myocardial infarction (12 hours after onset of chest pain)
- Decompensated heart failure
- AV block
- Adverse Effects
- Fatigue / headache
- Postural hypotension
- Nausea / vomiting / diarrhoea
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