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Sleep Disorders
 
 

Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

 
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Pathogenesis

    • Risk Factors for Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

    • Obesity
    • Male gender
    • Craniofacial abnormalities - retrognathia
    • Upper airway narrowing - enlarged tonsils, macroglossia, narrow nasal cavity
    • Alcohol excess
    • Smoking

Severity

    • Severity of Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

      Based on the apnoea-hypopnoea index on sleep study
    • Mild: 5-15
    • Moderate: 15-30
    • Severe: >30

Manifestations

    • Complications of Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

    • Hypertension
    • Ischaemic heart disease
    • Cerebrovascular disease
    • Pulmonary hypertension
    • Atrial fibrillation
    • Depression

Management

    • Management Options

    • Weight loss
    • Treatment of upper airway obstruction - mandible advancement splints, surgical correction
    • Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) at night
    • Smoking cessation
    • Alcohol reduction
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