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Haemodynamic Dysfunction
Haemodynamic Dysfunction

Left Ventricular Failure



Left heart failure typically manifests with interstitial and pulmonary oedema, and is most commonly caused by pathology affecting the left ventricular myocardium.


  • Causes of Left Ventricular Failure

  • Ischaemic heart disease
  • Cardiomyopathy
  • Myocarditis
  • Pericardial disease
  • Valvular disease
  • Congenital heart disease
  • Hypertension


  • Complications of Left Ventricular Failure

  • Arrhythmias - atrial fibrillation, ventricular arrhythmias
  • Stroke
  • Sarcopaenia
  • Pulmonary oedema
  • Pulmonary hypertension


  • Signs of Left Ventricular Failure

  • Sarcopaenia (muscle wasting)
  • Tachycardia
  • Pulsus alternans: regular alternation between strong and weak beats
  • Displaced apex
  • Presence of third heart sound (S3)
  • Pulmonary crepitations / wheeze
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